Parasites - Sea Lice & other Parasitic Crustacea

The parasitic crustaceans are one of the most economically important groups of fish parasite pathogens in the world. The freshwater parasites such as Argulus spp., Ergasilus spp. and Lernaea spp. cause serious problems in both cultured and sport fish in many countries round the world. In mariculture, the sea lice, Lepeophtheirus spp. and Caligus spp., as well as Lernaeocera branchialis, are worldwide problems of the greatest economic significance. The Parasitology Group has retained an interest and expertise in parasitic Crustacea for many years and have maintained a continuous research programme since inception. Many aspects of their biology, morphology, life-cycles, physiology, pathology and genetics have been studied, as well as control methods involving management and chemotherapy. Several important control measures used today were first developed by the group such as single year class stocking, fallowing; and chemotherapeutants such as hydrogen peroxide and SLICE (emamectin benzoate).

Selected References

  1. Smith, J.L., Wootten, R. & Sommerville C. (2007) The pathology of the early stages of the crustacean parasite, Lernaeocera branchialis (L), on Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua L. Journal of Fish Diseases, 30 (1), 1-11
  2. Taylor, N.G.H., Sommerville, C. & Wootten, R. (2006) The epidemiology of Argulus spp. (Crustacea: Branchiura) infections in stillwater trout fisheries. Journal of Fish Diseases, 29, 193-200.
  3. Fernandez-Leborans, G., Freeman, M., Gabilondo, R. & Sommerville, C. (2005) Marine protozoan epibionts on the copepod Lepeophtheirus salmonis, parasite of the Atlantic salmon. Journal of Natural History, 39 (8), 587-596.
  4. Dixon, B. A., Shinn, A.P. & Sommerville, C. (2004) Genetic characterisation of populations of the ectoparasitic caligid, Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Krøyer, 1837) using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPDs). Aquaculture Research, 35, 730-741.
  5. Freeman, M.A., Bell, A.S. & Sommerville, C. (2003) A Hyperparasitic microsporidian infecting the salmon louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis: An rDNA-based molecular phylogenetic study. Journal of Fish Diseases, 26 (11-12), 667-676.
  6. Stone, J., Boyd, S., Sommerville, C. & Rae, G.H. (2002) An evaluation of freshwater bath treatments for the control of sea lice, Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Kroyer), infections in Atlantic Salmon,Salmo salar L. Journal of Fish Diseases, 25, 371-373.
  7. Stone, J., Roy, W.J., Sutherland, I.H., Ferguson, H.W., Sommerville, C. & Endris, R. (2002) Safety and efficacy of emamectin benzoate administered in feed to Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., smolts in freshwater, as a preventative treatment against infestations of sea lice, Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Kroyer). Aquaculture, 210, 21-34.
  8. Tucker, C.S., Norman, R., Shinn, A.P., Bron, J.E., Sommerville, C. & Wootten, R. (2002) A single cohort, time delay model of the life cycle of the salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) on Atlantic salmon Salmo salar. Fish Pathology, 37, 107-118.
  9. Tucker, C.S., Sommerville, C. & Wootten, R. (2002) Does size really matter? Effects of fish surface area on the settlement and initial survival of Lepeophtheirus salmonis, an ectoparasite of the Atlantic salmon Salmo salar. Diseases of Aquatic Organisims, 49, 145-152.
  10. Stone, J., Sutherland, I.H., Sommerville, C., Richards, R.H. & Endris, R.G. (2000) The duration of efficacy following oral treatment with emamectin benzoate against infestations of sea lice, Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Kroyer), in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar (L.) Journal of Fish Diseases, 23, 185-192.
  11. Stone J., Sutherland I.H., Sommerville C., Richards R.H., Varma, K.J. (2000) Commercial trials using emamectin benzoate to control, Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Krøyer) and Caligus elongatus (Nordmann), infestations in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, 41, 141-149
  12. Stone, J., Sutherland, I.H., Sommerville, C., Richards, R.H., Varma, K.L. (2000) Field trials to evaluate the efficacy of emamectin benzoate in the control of sea lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Krøyer) and Caligus elongatus Nordmann, infestations in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar (L.). Aquaculture, 186, 205-219.
  13. Bron, J.E., Shinn, A.P. & Sommerville, C. (2000) A description of moulting in the chalimus larva of the salmon louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Krøyer, 1837) (Copepoda, Caligidae). Contributions to Zoology, 69 (1/2) 31-38.
  14. Bron, J.E., Shinn, A.P. & Sommerville, C. (2000) Ultrastructure of the cuticle of chalimus larva of the salmon louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Krøyer, 1837) (Copepoda, Caligidae). Contributions to Zoology, 69 (1/2) 39-49
  15. Shinn, A.P., Banks, B.A., Bron, J.E. & Sommerville, C. (2000) Utility of 18S rDNA and ITS sequences as population markers for Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Krøyer, 1837) (Copepoda: Caligidae) parasitising Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in Scotland. Contributions to Zoology, 69 (1/2), 89-98.
  16. Bell, S., Bron, J.E. & Sommerville, C. (2000) Distribution of exocrine glands in Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Krøyer 1837) and Caligus elongatus Nordmann, 1832.(Copepda: Caligidae). Contributions to Zoology, 69 (1/2), 9-12.
  17. Shinn, A.P., Bron, J.E., Gray, D.J. & Sommerville, C. (2000) Elemental analysis of Scottish populations of the ectoparasite copepod Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Krøyer, 1837). Contributions to Zoology, 69 (1/2), 79-87.
  18. Stone, J., Sutherland, J.H., Sommerville, C., Richards, R.H. & Varma, K.J. (1999) The efficacy of emmamectin benzoate as an oral treatment of sea lice, Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Krøyer), infestations in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar. Journal of Fish Diseases, 22 (4) 261-270
  19. McAndrew, K., Sommerville, C., Wootten, R. & Bron, J.E. (1998) The effects of hydrogen peroxide treatment on different life-cycle stages of the salmon louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Krøyer, 1837). Journal of Fish Diseases, 21, 221–228.
  20. Bron, J.E. & Sommerville, C. (1998). The functional and comparative morphology of the photoreceptors of the copepodid larva of the salmon louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Krøyer, 1837) (Crustacea: Copepoda, Caligidae). Zoologischer Anzeiger, 237, 113–126.
  21. Andrade-Salas, O., Sommerville, C., Wootten, R., Turnbull, T., Melvin, W., Arnezaga, T. & Labus, M. (1993) Immunohistochemical screening and selection of monoclonal antibodies to the salmon louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Kroyer, 1837). In: “Pathogens of Wild and Farmed Fish: Sea Lice” Boxshall, G. & Defaye, D. (eds.) Ellis Horwood Ltd., 323-331.
  22. Bron, J.E., Sommerville, C. & Rae, G.H. (1993) Aspects of the behaviour of copepodid larvae of the salmon louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Kroyer, 1837). In: “Pathogens of Wild and Farmed Fish: Sea Lice”. Boxshall, G. & Defaye, D. (eds.) Ellis Horwood Ltd., 125-142.
  23. Roth, M., Richards, R.H. & Sommerville, C. (1993) Preliminary studies on the efficacy of two pyrethroid compounds resmethrin and lambdacyhalothrin, for the treatment of sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) infestations of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). In: “Pathogens of Wild and Farmed Fish: Sea Lice”. Boxshall, G. & Defaye, D. (eds.) Ellis Horwood Ltd., 275-289.
  24. Bron, J.E., Sommerville, C., Wootten, R. & Rae, G.H. (1993) Fallowing of marine Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., farms as a method for the control of sea lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Kroyer, 1837). Journal of Fish Diseases, 16, 487-493.
  25. Bron, J.E., Sommerville, C. & Rae, G.H. (1993). Influence of treatment with dichlorvos on the epidemiology of Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Kroyer, 1837) and Caligus elongatus Nordmann, 1832 on Scottish salmon farms. In: “Pathogens of Wild and Farmed Fish: Sea Lice”. Boxshall, G. & Defaye, D. (eds.) Ellis Horwood Ltd., 263-274.
  26. Roth, M., Richards, R.H. & Sommerville, C. (1993) Current practices in the chemotherapeutic control of sea lice infestations in aquaculture - a review. Journal of Fish Diseases, 16 (1), 1-26.
  27. Bron, J.E., Sommerville, C. & Rae, G.H. (1993) Functional morphology of alimentary canal of larval stages of the parasitic copepod Lepeophtheirus salmonis. Journal of Zoology, London, 230, 207-220.
  28. Roth, M., Richards, R.H. & Sommerville, C. (1993) Current practices in the chemotherapeutic control of sea lice infestations in Aquaculture. A review. Journal of Fish Diseases, 16 (1), 1-27.
  29. Bron, J.E. & Treasurer, J.W. (1992) Sea lice (Caligidae) on wrasse (Labridae) from selected British wild and salmon-farm sources. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the U.K., 72, 645-650
  30. Jones, M.W., Sommerville, C. & Wootten, R. (1992) Reduced Sensitivity of the salmon louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis to the organophosphate Dichlorvos. Journal of Fish Diseases, 15, 303-310.
  31. Jonsdottir, H., Bron, J.E., Wootten, R. & Turnbull, J.F. (1992) The histopathology associated with the pre-adult and adult stages of Lepeophtheirus salmonis on the Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L. Journal of Fish Diseases, 15, 521-527.
  32. Roth, M. & Richards, R.H. (1992) Trials on the efficacy of azamethiphos and its safety to salmon in the control of sea lice. In: “Chemotherapy in Aquaculture: from Theory to Reality.” Micher, C. & Alderman, D.J. (Eds.) Office International des Epizootes, Paris, 212-218.
  33. Bron, J.E., Sommerville, C., Jones M. & Rae, G.H. (1991). The settlement and attachment of early stages of the salmon louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Copepoda: Caligidae) on the salmon host Salmo salar. Journal of Zoology (London), 224, 201-212.
  34. Jones, M.W., Sommerville, C. (1990) The histopathology associated with the juvenile stages of Lepeophtheirus salmonis on the Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L. Journal of Fish Diseases, 13, 303-310.