Parasites - G. salaris

The ectoparasite Gyrodactylus salaris has been responsible for large-scale mortalities of juvenile salmon in Norway, where stocks appear to have little or no natural immunity to the parasite. Eradication of the parasite in the wild is difficult and expensive, and the measures used often cause further biological, environmental and economic stress to the affected systems. G. salaris is thought to have spread widely across Europe in recent years, although the UK currently remains free of the parasite. Given the economic and social importance of the UK’s Atlantic salmon fisheries, a high priority has been given to Gyrodactylusresearch and to developing measures to reduce the risk of importing the parasite, data from which will be used to improve national contingency plans.

Research focuses on probable G. salaris introduction and transmission routes by:

  1. identifying and evaluating the possible risk factors involved in the successful establishment of the parasite;
  2. looking at the factors affecting transmission strategies used by Gyrodactylus;
  3. validating current identification protocols for G. salaris and estimating the true probability of correct identification under conditions of an expected outbreak; and
  4. evaluating the economic impact of G. salaris should be introduced

Selected References

  1. Paladini, G., Gustinelli, A., Fioravanti, M.L. & Shinn, A.P. (2007) Approccio sistematico a Gyrodactylus salaris (Platyhelminthes, Monogenea) e sua prima descrizione in Italia. (“Systematic approach to Gyrodactylus salaris (Platyhelminthes, Monogenea): first report in Italy”). Ittiopatologia, 3, 197-203.
  2. Radford, A., Riddington, G., Paffrath, S., Bostock, J. & Shinn, A. (2006) An economic evaluation of the impact of the salmon parasite Gyrodactylus salaris (Gs) should it be introduced into Scotland: Summary Report. Prepared for the Scottish Executive Environment and Rural Affairs Department, Project Number SAQ/001/05. 132 pp.
  3. Bakke, T.A., Nilsen, K.B. & Shinn, A.P. (2004) The application of chaetotaxy to discriminate between Norwegian Gyrodactylus salaris Malmberg, 1957 clades and related species from salmonids. Folia Parasitologica, 51, 253-261.
  4. Shinn, A.P., Hansen, H., Bakke, T.A. & Bachmann, L. (2004) Morphometric differences between laboratory reared mt clades of Gyrodactylus salaris and G. thymalli (Monogenea). Folia Parasitologica, 51, 239-252.
  5. Shinn, A.P., Gibson, D.I. & Sommerville, C. (2001) The discrimination of Gyrodactylus salaris from species of Gyrodactylus parasitising British salmonids using novel morphometric parameters. A scanning electron microscopy study. Journal of Fish Diseases, 24, 83-97.
  6. McHugh, E.S., Shinn, A.P. & Kay, J.W. (2000) Discrimination of G. salaris and G. thymalli (Monogenea) using statistical classifiers applied to morphometric data. Parasitology, 121, 315-323.
  7. Shinn, A.P., Kay, J.W. & Sommerville, C. (2000) The use of statistical classifiers for the discrimination of species of the genus Gyrodactylus (Monogenea) parasitising salmonids. Parasitology, 120, 1-9.
  8. Kay, J.W., Shinn, A.P. & Sommerville, C. (1999) Towards an automated system for the identification of notifiable pathogens. Parasitology Today, 15 (5), 201-206.
  9. Shinn, A.P., Sommerville, C. & Gibson, D.I. (1998) The application of chaetotaxy in the discrimination of Gyrodactylus salaris Malmberg, 1957 (Gyrodactylidae: Monogenea) from species of the genus parasitising British salmonids. International Journal of Parasitology, 28, 805–814.
  10. Shinn, A.P., Sommerville, C. & Gibson, D.I. (1995) Distribution and characterization of Gyrodactylus Nordmann, 1832 (Monogenea) parasitizing British salmonids in the UK, and their discrimination from G. salaris Malmberg, 1957. Journal of Natural History, 29, 1383-1402.