Biology & Ecology - Life-cycle and biology studies

Knowledge of the life-cycle is critical to the understanding of parasite pathology, epizootiology and to the management and control of parasitic diseases in intensive and extensive aquaculture systems. Using a range of infection techniques employed under controlled laboratory conditions it is possible, in many cases, to reproduce the life-cycle for detailed study, e.g. those of copepod crustacean parasites. However, this is not always possible, in which case field studies to identify potential hosts may involve the screening of large numbers of aquatic organisms. Such large-scale screening work has been necessary for the elucidation of the life-cycle of a number of myxosporeans of cultured salmonids and to identify the vertebrate and invertebrate hosts of several strigeoid parasites. Data obtained from these studies can feed into mathematical models from which predictions can be made such as the life-cycle model we developed for Lepeophtheirus salmonis. Such models canbe informative for targeting treatments.

Selected References

  1. Holzer, A.S., Sommerville, C. & Wootten, R. (2005) Molecular identity, phylogeny and life-cycle of Chloromyxum schurovi Shul’man & Ieshko 2005. Parasitology Research, 99 (1), 90-96.
  2. Fernandez-Leborans, G., Freeman, M., Gabilondo, R. & Sommerville, C. (2005) Marine protozoan epibionts on the copepod Lepeophtheirus salmonis, parasite of the Atlantic salmon. Journal of Natural History, 39 (8), 587-596.
  3. Scholz, T., Kuchta, R., Shinn, A.P., Šnábel, V. & Hanzelová, V. (2003) Host specificity and geographical distribution of Eubothrium tapeworms (Cestoda: Pseudophyllidea) in salmonid fish of Europe. Journal of Helminthology, 77, 255-262.
  4. Ozer, A., Wootten, R. & Shinn, A.P. (2002) Infection prevalence (%) seasonality and host specificity of actinosporean types in Atlantic salmon fish farms in Northern Scotland. Folia Parasitologica, 49, 263-268.
  5. Ozer, A., Wootten, R. & Shinn, A.P. (2002) Survey of actinosprean types (Myxozoa) belonging to seven collective groups found in freshwater salmon farms in Northern Scotland. Folia Parasitologica, 49, 189-210
  6. Tucker, C.S., Sommerville, C. & Wootten, R. (2002) Does size really matter? Effects of fish surface area on the settlement and initial survival of Lepeophtheirus salmonis, an ectoparasite of the Atlantic salmon Salmo salar. Diseases of Aquatic Organisims, 49, 145-152.
  7. Sommerville, C. (1998) Parasitic Diseases of Fish. In “The Biology of Farmed Fish” (eds Black, K. & Pickering, A.). Sheffield Biological Sciences, Vol. 1 Sheffield Academic Press.
  8. McGeorge, J., Sommerville, C. & Wootten, R. (1997) Studies of actinosporean myxozoan stages parasitic in oligochaetes from the sediments of a hatchery where Atlantic salmon harbour Sphaerospora truttae infection. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, 30, 107–119.
  9. McGeorge, J., Sommerville, C. & Wootten, R. (1996) Transmission experiments to determine the relationship between Sphaerospora sp. from Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, and Sphaerospora truttae: a revised species description for S.truttae. Folia Parasitologica, 43, 107-116.
  10. Ferraz, E., Shinn, A. & Sommerville, C. (1994) Gyrodactylus gemini sp. n. (Monogenea, Gyrodactylidae) parasite of Semaprochilodus taeniurus (Steindachner, 1882) from the Venezuelan Amazon. Systematic Parasitology, 29, 217-222.
  11. Subasinghe, R.P. & Sommerville, C. (1992) Effects of temperature on hatchability, development and growth of eggs and yolksac fry of Oreochromis mossambicus (Peters) under artificial incubation. Aquaculture and Fisheries Management, 23 (1), 31-39.
  12. Bron, J.E., Sommerville, C., Jones M. & Rae, G.H. (1991). The settlement and attachment of early stages of the salmon louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Copepoda: Caligidae) on the salmon host Salmo salar. Journal of Zoology (London), 224, 201-212.
  13. Sommerville, C. & Iqbal, N.A.M. (1991) The process of infection, migration, growth and development of Sanguinicola inermis Plehn, 1905 (Digenea: Sanguinicolidae) in carp Cyprinus carp L. Journal of Fish Diseases, 14, 211-219.
  14. Smith, J. W., A.E. Elarifi, R. Wootten et al (1990) Experimental infection of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, with Contracaecum osculatum (Rudolphi, 1878) and Pseudoterranova decipiens (Krabbe, 1878) (Nematoda: Ascaridoidea)
  15. Sommerville, Christina (1982) Haplorchis pumilio Looss infections in cultured food fish. 1. Life History. journal of fish diseases 5, 233-241